skinMicromin is a form of Transdermal Micronutrition (TDM) that is a treatment of certain effects of iron-deficiency anemia. Micromin has other potential applications as well, including in the area of environmental medicine where its ion-substitution effect can help ward off many kinds of toxic substances.

Micromin exploits a capability that human beings have inherited from distant ancestors. Its action suggests that in certain circumstances human beings can exhibit behavior reminiscent of medusa and polyp stages; and that the transition between the two can convey certain unusual benefits, especially in the area of gynecology and obstetrics. Micromin’s abilities to bypass the liver and to provide a steady supply of micronutrients differentiate it from gastrointestinal feeding and may explain some of its effects. There are some indications that Micromin’s mechanism of action overlaps with—and thus may elucidate—the mechanism of action of Traditional Chinese Medicine moxa therapy (moxibustion). In turn, this may mean that Micromin will prove effective in the various and at times remarkable indications for which moxa has traditionally been employed.Now there is a need for clinical trials of Micromin as a treatment of iron-deficiency anemia and as prophylaxis against lead, arsenic, and silver poisoning. Micromin has Investigational New Drug status with FDA (IND #59805).

Iron-Deficiency Anemia

Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is the world’s leading micronutrient deficiency, afflicting between 500 million and 1 billion individuals worldwide, depending on its definition. IDA has been humankind’s second most serious nutritional problem after protein-energy hunger itself, though the international epidemic of obesity is swiftly surpassing it. IDA leads to fatigue, learning disabilities, stunted growth, physical debility, and reduced resistance to disease. Iron-deficiency status makes an individual much more vulnerable to environmental toxic substances, including heavy metals, pesticides, industrial chemicals, and radioactive materials. In rapidly industrializing countries such as China and India, iron deficiency thus can magnify the already devastating effects of pollution.

In the anemia of chronic disease, there is frequently a strong element of iron deficiency, arising in many cases from sequestration of iron in the liver. This creates a susceptibility to toxic substances that can in turn work to undermine the immune system and the general functioning of the body. This phenomenon can be termed Disease-Induced Susceptibility to Toxic Substances (DISTS). DISTS is an unexamined, generally unsuspected, yet potentially quite significant source of morbidity in chronic disorders such as cancer.

IDA is a significant health problem in advanced countries such as the United States, where 8 percent of adult females and 1 percent of adult males are affected, making IDA second only to obesity as a nutritional problem. And IDA is a very major problem in many developing countries, e.g., in India, where hundreds of millions of individuals have IDA and 25 percent of pregnant women suffer from severe IDA, with consequent deleterious effects on their fetuses. There is a multiplier effect in the case of lead absorption during iron deficiency because the lead is stored in the bones of an anemic woman, only to be released during pregnancy into the blood–and thereby into the fetus.

Many efforts have been made to combat IDA. Fortification of foods, supplementation, and emphasis on dietary intake of iron have been largely successful in reducing the prevalence of IDA in rich and middle-income countries. In recent years, these approaches have had some impact on IDA in poor countries as well. Still, hundreds of millions of people live beyond the reach of such programs. The programs themselves can be rather expensive and hard to implement in poor countries. Certain approaches (e.g., supplementation) encounter problems with compliance and risk the danger of abuse (iron poisoning of children who swallow their parents’ iron pills). Injections of iron can help in some cases; but they can have side effects and are relatively expensive and unappealing to many. Lastly, many sufferers from IDA simply cannot absorb iron via their gastrointestinal tracts at the rate required to attain and maintain iron-replete status.

It has long been observed that iron pots deposit flakes of iron in food during cooking. Studies have confirmed this, and iron pots are considered a significant source of iron among certain populations. However, the replacement of iron pots by aluminum and other types has reduced access to this source of iron to some extent.

All approaches to providing iron encounter the problem of absorbability, which depends on the age, gender, size, health status, and diet of each individual, as well as on the chemical form and oxidation state of the iron. In addition, competition from zinc, copper, calcium, manganese, and other elements as well as the effects of substances such as phytates can reduce iron absorption.

In a study of 129 new cases of destructive pulmonary tuberculosis with iron deficiency, of whom 95 had first-degree IDA, Russian researchers found that a combination of antioxidants (tocopherol acetate, ascorbic acid) and antihypoxant (riboxine) proved superior to ferroplex oral iron supplementation as an adjuvant therapy to standard DOTS drugs. Their statistical analysis revealed that IDA was one of the most significant factors slowing down healing from TB (Voloshina and Fomicheva (2002)). Thus, ensuring an optimal supply of iron could in theory play a critical role in immune defense against many infectious diseases, and specifically in tuberculosis. But actually delivering the correct dose of iron by the best route to the right cells in the body represents a formidable challenge.

Transdermal Micronutrition

In recent years transdermal patches have been used to deliver vitamins, drugs, and other non-mineral substances on a sustained basis to the skin. However, it is not clear that anyone has successfully applied this approach to micromineral nutrition.

Copper bracelets are a well-known folk remedy for arthritis. Millions of people worldwide wear these bracelets, and many claims are made for them. Until recently, no clear mechanism of action or consistent therapeutic effect had been demonstrated. In the first scientific study of the subject, Australian researchers found evidence suggesting that copper from these bracelets does penetrate the skin and can have an ameliorative effect in rheumatoid arthritis. In particular, habitual wearers of copper bracelets strongly favored copper bracelets over look-alike anodized aluminum bracelets in a clinical trial (Walker and Keats, 1976). A recent Mayo Clinic study also found that copper bracelets were effective in about 75 percent of cases of musculoskeletal pain in a range of disorders, a degree of effectiveness resembling that of various standard treatments of such disorders (Bratton et al., 2002). So the only two scientific studies on the question of the medicinal effects of copper bracelets concur that they are indeed frequently effective in reducing pain.

Several mechanisms may be involved. Because of their similar atomic weights and other features, copper competes for absorption with zinc and iron, which are crucial, limiting components of the various cells, cytokines, and other molecules of the immune system. So a steady supply of transdermal copper ions could reduce the availability of zinc and iron to the immune system and thereby tend to deactivate it. This effect would be pronounced in autoimmune disorders like rheumatoid arthritis but perhaps could be employed in more subtle ways in other disorders as well.

Copper forms an essential component of two of the four key antioxidant enzymes–superoxide dismutase and ceruloplasmin. So its effects in modulating the immune system and suppressing pain could stem from a reduction in oxidative stress.

However, it should be noted that the bracelets do not convey their effects quickly. In an anecdotal case, a longtime arthritis sufferer wore a copper bracelet for 18 days without effect. On the 19th day, her pain disappeared. So bracelets might need to be worn for at least two months to find out whether they can prove effective in an individual case.

Micromin

While Micromin can come in several embodiments, the primary one is a bracelet. In the treatment of IDA, the bracelet consists of a copper matrix that serves as the cathode and an iron component that becomes the anode. The redox interaction of these two elements in the bracelet creates an electrochemical cell that reaches into the skin. In keeping with the hierarchy of the electrochemical or galvanic series, the less reactive/more noble metal copper is conserved in the bracelet while the less noble of the pair, the iron, loses electrons to it in an oxidation reaction and is deposited in ionic form into the solution, i.e., into the sweat on the skin and the fluids beneath the skin. In effect, it is the application of the concept of a sacrificial anode to micronutrition, with the beneficial effect shifting from the conservation of the cathode to the dispensing of the anode. The same processes would occur with many other pairs of elements, e.g., silver and zinc.

Preliminary casual tests of Micromin suggest that it has no effect on persons with iron-replete status. On those with iron deficiency, however, the effect appears powerful. For instance, the skin on the shoulder of the arm with the bracelet at the wrist can become very dry and rough, suggesting a response that goes back to the time when human ancestors were swimming about in the primeval sea. This was before there were such appendages as arms, so any sensation at the wrist would be attributed to the shoulder or flipper area. Such a sea creature floating about might eventually land on some spot which, via its skin, could provide a continuous flow of nutrition and energy. In response, the creature would anchor itself to this location and undergo a transformation. This would involve shifting at least in part from a gastrointestinal to a transdermal source of nutrition.

In other words, the TDM phenomenon suggests that in certain circumstances human beings retain a capacity for shifting from a medusa-like stage to a polyp-like one. In effect, TDM can be termed the Original Feeding System (OFS) of human beings. Before the development of the gastrointestinal tract, the OFS was the only source of nutrition humankind’s distant ancestors had. What mechanisms controlled it and where they were located are not known. It is possible that in the brain a distinct center controls the OFS, or that different pathways link the skin and the gastrointestinal tract to the same brain center. Yet presumably the OFS existed long before there was a brain or anything resembling it.

An important goal of research in this direction is to determine whether shifting from the gastrointestinal mode of eating to the transdermal one entrains other effects as well–for instance, neuro-psychological ones such as changes in appetite. To trigger the TDM response, three factors seem essential. First, a state of deficiency. Second, a source of energy, in this case the electrochemical reaction on the skin’s surface. And third, the supply of a much-needed nutrient—iron—to the body. When these are simultaneously present, a signal is sent to the skin to open up its lipid barrier and absorb the nutrient.

One important potential implication of this is that, once the transdermal feeding is completed and the individual becomes iron-replete, the process would switch itself off. If this is true, then TDM for IDA does not run the danger of leading to excessive absorption and hemochromatosis. However, it is not yet proven that no significant amount of iron will penetrate the skin in cases when subjects have normal iron status. At any rate, according to this hypothesis, unless these three factors are present, the device will be inactive and no TDM will occur. Thus spreading a paste with iron powder in it onto the skin will have no effect because there is no source of energy to send a signal to the body.

Two further characteristics of this phenomenon deserve note. First, TDM is potentially continuous, in contrast to gastrointestinal feeding, which is intermittent. Continuous TDM can send a different signal to the body. During gastrointestinal feeding the body can never feel sure that it will have another meal soon. In contrast, the “anchoring” to the bracelet in TDM offers a continuous, secure flow of nutrition and energy, especially if it is worn 24 hours a day. It sends a signal to the body that the individual as well as a possible fetus will receive a reliable supply of the much-needed nutrient.

Second, the iron in TDM moves directly into the blood without first passing through the liver and undergoing sequestration there. What exact effect this might have is not clear; but presumably it is different from, and more powerful than, the effect of iron obtained through the gastrointestinal route. One mechanism might be that the iron is rapidly absorbed by the RBCs and significantly boosts their oxygen-bearing capability. Another is that it is quickly bound by a protein such as transferrin and transported to cells with a high demand for nutrients.

It is possible that other influences than electrochemistry are at work. In particular, the shape and composition of the bracelet probably engender electromagnetic effects that influence the phenomena surrounding TDM. One prototype, for instance, was shaped as an arc of 300 degrees of a full circle, so that the two ends might have had special corona or electromagnetic characteristics. In addition, the use of highly conductive copper and easily magnetized iron might have influenced the outcome.

Finally, any magnetic aspects of the bracelet might have been felt not only on the very sensitive surface of the skin but also in the center of the bracelet’s circle, i.e., in the middle of the wrist, as in an electrical motor arrangement.

In addition, psychological effects could clearly play a role. These would include a placebo effect that might be enhanced by the novelty and the experimental nature of first usage. Genetic, cultural, dietary, and environmental factors could also predispose a person to respond more fully to the presence of the bracelet.

 

The Device

The particular ratio of the copper and iron in the alloy, their deployment throughout the bracelet, and the shape of the bracelet all are variables that need to be experimented with in the course of a study in order to arrive at an optimal solution.

Other variables such as temperature, the polarization behavior of the electrochemical couple, the conductivity of the environment, the composition and motion of the solution, protective skin surface films, the presence of microbes, the development of oxygen pockets leading to passivation, the thermal history of the alloy, and the relative surface areas of interacting elements further complicate the picture. In ongoing corrosion, the shift of half-cell potentials toward each other as a result of corrosion (polarization) ensures that the rate of corrosion changes over time. All these make it difficult to predict and control flow rates of iron across the skin. However, the apparently self-regulating nature of the process and the use of natural, essential micronutrients tend to reduce the need for the precision that is so important in the provision of drugs from dermal patches.

Whatever role various complicating factors might play, the electrochemical forces operating by themselves according to the simple model of an electrochemical cell appear adequate for explaining most of the effect.

The rate of the electrochemical reaction and hence of the deposition of iron by the Micromin bracelet can presumably be enhanced by magnetizing it, by raising its temperature, or by running a tiny battery-operated current through it. But none of these is thought essential, and in fact they could detract from the clarity of understanding of the mechanisms of action.

The Micromin bracelet is in effect a passive iontophoresis device. The same effects could presumably be achieved by spreading iron particles in a paste on the skin, then applying positive and negative electrodes (active iontophoresis) to induce the skin to open its lipid barrier. But this would be a clumsy method and might run the risk of burns.

The Micromin bracelet’s simple, passive, close-to-Nature character is considered to be a great advantage. The device is intended for use by people with micronutrient deficiencies, in this case of iron—not as an iron supplement for healthy, well-nourished, iron-replete people, for which purpose it is probably ineffective anyway. However, the Micromin bracelet may have an application as a form of prophylaxis for children exposed to toxic substances in the environment (on the question of nutrition vs. environmental toxic substances, see Hu et al. (1995)). When the child is iron-replete, the bracelet may be inactive; but in the event that the child’s iron status should begin to decline, the device would tend to activate and correct the deficiency, thereby protecting the child against increased vulnerability to ambient toxic substances.

In this ion-substitution application, Micromin can play a significant role in protecting hundreds of millions of children (and adults as well) in urban and industrial areas of developing countries who are exposed to lead, other heavy metals, chemicals, and radiation. In particular, research has shown that ingestion of paint and house dust is a much smaller source of lead poisoning than the lead-laced dirt along heavily travelled roads where vehicles use leaded fuels (Zakrzewski, pp. 185-6). So Micromin can become a shield against lead poisoning of children living in cities throughout the world. This ion-substitution property of Micromin can reduce the uptake of radionuclides and heavy metals from nuclear weapons and waste in vulnerable, iron-deficient population groups.

In addition to ion substitution, Micromin can serve as a key component of antioxidant therapy, along with Vitamins C and E, especially in protecting the respiratory system against air pollution. If one adds zinc to the copper and iron, Micromin will provide the microminerals needed for three of the four leading antioxidant enzymes–superoxide dismutase and ceruloplasmin, as noted above, and also iron-based catalase.

Of particular interest is the potential of Micromin to be used as an adjuvant therapy to stimulate the immune system in patients with infectious diseases accompanied by anemia. Both iron and zinc could be effective in this role.

The bracelet also slowly deposits copper onto and through the skin as well, so treatment with it can be considered copper therapy as well.

 

The Silver-IDA Corollary

In the course of research on IDA, the hypothesis has arisen that a significant and perhaps decisive factor in its prevalence and severity in certain countries is the use of silver jewelry by individuals with a tendency toward low iron status. In particular, in India hundreds of millions of people suffer from iron deficiency to some degree or another. Most of these are adult females, but they include many children and some adult males as well. At the same time, hundreds of millions of people also wear silver jewelry, primarily in the form of anklets but also as belts, bracelets, rings, earrings, etc. In earlier times, many adult males wore silver anklets; but now this is considered effeminate, so that it is primarily adult females and some children who do so.

In a country where there are many poor people who are vulnerable to malnutrition anyway and where many people are vegetarians by choice or by necessity, it is not surprising that many people are iron deficient (though well-nourished vegetarians run little risk of iron deficiency). What is remarkable is that such a very high proportion of the population suffers from iron deficiency; that in many cases it is inordinately severe; and that it has proven stubbornly resistant to treatment by supplementation, food fortification, agricultural intervention, and nutrition education.

Two explanations have been offered: the prevalence of hookworm and the heavy use of milk and other cow products by a lactovegetarian population (calcium in milk being a kind of antagonist to iron). But hookworm seems too narrow an explanation, while consumption of cow products seems too broad: why do these women and children have iron deficiency and not others who drink milk? So it makes sense to look for another explanation, perhaps one that works in tandem with malnutrition, hookworm, and cow products.

As a close analog of copper, silver can be dispensed by selective leaching from an anklet just as copper is from a copper bracelet. Within the body, silver has been demonstrated to occupy many of the same sites as copper. Thus the argument would be that, in the body of a malnourished person (or perhaps a pregnant one), a trickle of silver from anklets would be deposited onto the skin and absorbed, enter into the blood stream, and—before being excreted—substitute for copper and thereby:

  1. Keep it from forming ceruloplasmin, which is essential to iron utilization in hemoglobin. Ceruloplasmin constitutes less than 3 percent of body stores of copper, which are very small in the first place. Thus a few micrograms of silver daily might occupy enough sites in ceruloplasmin ordinarily occupied by copper to create or deepen iron deficiency anemia. An assumption is that incoming copper (and hence presumably silver) is directed preferentially to the formation of ceruloplasmin rather than to storage locations because of its vital role in iron metabolism;
  2. Block copper from entering the active site of superoxidase dismutase, which ordinarily prevents the superoxide molecule from damaging red blood cells; and
  3. Reduce the initial absorption of iron essential for the formation of hemoglobin in red blood cells.

If copper is a competitor with iron, silver almost surely is also. Whether the stoichiometry of the trickle of silver would suffice to play this role; whether the silver might have other deleterious effects; and what the relative influences of such subclinical silver poisoning and malnutrition might be are subjects for study.

Thus far the possible role of silver has been overlooked for many reasons—mainly that protein-energy malnutrition has appeared to be such a palpable cause of IDA.

It is conceivable that silver plays such a role in the fetus as well. Subtle brain damage could also result from the concentration of high levels of silver, yet be ascribed to other causes. The wearing of silver jewelry by Indian babies could continue this pattern, so that in effect silver would be present throughout the life cycle in women, though not necessarily at levels generally considered toxic. Absorbed silver could also have long-lasting effects in males even after they stopped wearing silver jewelry because of the cumulative dose or because of susceptibilities to other toxic substances that their consequent iron-deficiency status may have induced in them.

How this hypothesis relates to the well-known syndrome of Indian Childhood Cirrhosis is not clear. The use of brass containers to cook and store milk for young children was clearly implicated as the cause of the extreme concentration of copper in the livers of ICC children, and brass containers have now stopped being used in this way, causing a dramatic drop in the incidence of ICC (Pandit and Bhave, 1996). Still, the high incidence of ICC in males could be explained by a greater tendency of girls to wear silver.

At any rate, the history of ICC represents a mysterious, deeply entrenched medical disorder in South Asia that turned out to be caused by an overdose of a micromineral from the social environment, an intriguing parallel to the Silver-IDA hypothesis.

Silver jewelry is also common among certain peoples in Africa and is worn widely throughout the entire world. In many cases, it can be presumed to be innocuous. An iron-replete person would lack one of the three prerequisites for TDM noted above—a deficiency status—and so could presumably wear silver jewelry without any adverse effect. However, it is possible that silver from jewelry could play a role in IDA and other syndromes in rich and middle-income countries as well as in the developing world. Gold jewelry could likewise be implicated because gold is also an analog of copper, though as a more noble metal gold is less subject to corrosion. Gold’s cost also makes its use in jewelry, especially by poor people subject to malnutrition, much less prevalent. Platinum also fits this pattern. Thus the hypothesis that silver jewelry may be implicated in IDA can be viewed as a corollary of the general theory of Transdermal Micronutrition.

At the very least, in light of the dimensions of the problem of IDA, the possibility that silver jewelry plays a role deserves to be carefully studied, if only to be ruled out. Copper anklets or copper inner sheathing for silver anklets would eliminate this possible danger.

 

Other Considerations

It is to be understood that lessons learned from the operation of the Micromin device in the treatment of IDA may also have relevance for other types of TDM. Thus a Micromin bracelet containing copper and zinc can be used to dispense zinc therapy; and a bracelet can be loaded with several microminerals to be dispensed simultaneously, or a bracelet on one arm could dispense one micromineral while a second on the other arm dispenses another.

In addition, there may be ways of using the bracelet in special indications such as to reduce craving in alcoholics and drug abusers. In effect, the hypothesis would be that craving is a result of a demand by certain brain cells; and that this demand would mimic a state of iron-deficiency (zinc-deficiency, etc.), thus providing one of the three essential prerequisites for TDM. Iron does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier. So the most likely effect would be via a boosting of the iron content of the RBCs, which in turn could deliver more oxygen to the appropriate places in the brain (or liver, for that matter, since liver hypoxia is a significant feature of alcoholism).

According to a casual test, wearing a Micromin prototype eliminated the hypoglycemic headaches a woman ordinarily felt during a Lenten fast or after skipping lunch. So even if TDM will not provide a sufficient supply of iron to increase hemoglobin levels from iron-deficiency levels to normal levels, Micromin might still make available the small amount of iron that may be needed by iron-deficient people for suppressing symptoms such as hypoglycemic headaches. In turn, this suggests that Micromin may have a prophylactic effect against cluster headaches, for which oxygen is a standard treatment. Whether such prophylaxis would occur in a non-iron-deficient person is not clear.

In the case of treatment of an anemic cancer patient with Micromin, one can hypothesize that the tiny trickle of iron ions that crossed the skin would immediately be sequestered by the red blood cells and would serve to provide a steady stimulus to the immune system. So the iron would not be available to feed the growth of tumor cells, unlike the situation with such interventions as oral iron supplements or Total Iron Dextran. Micromin’s other fundamental effects on metabolism noted above might also play important roles in making it a valuable adjuvant therapy in cancer with significant anemia.

In general, the use of TDM in various branches of medicine should be considered a frontier area deserving of thorough exploration.

As far as potential drawbacks and side effects are concerned, the Micromin bracelet will inevitably rust over time and spread some of this rust onto the skin. To enhance the effects of the treatment, any iron present on the surface of the skin can be rubbed into the skin on a daily basis before the residue is cleaned off. But the rust will also dirty blouses and shirts; one must roll up long sleeves to avoid this. If allowed to accumulate, the rust can detract from the beauty of the bracelet as a piece of jewelry. Ultimately, a layer of rust on the inside of the bracelet will disrupt the deposition of iron onto the skin. So weekly scraping with a wire brush is advisable to remove rust and accumulated dirt. In practice, rust has been considered by wearers of the bracelet to be of negligible consequence thus far. A properly maintained Micromin bracelet should last for one year or longer.

The skin of people allergic to silver and other metals may react to Micromin. A more serious consideration—whether use of the bracelet could lead to hemochromatosis—has been already dealt with and has been adjudged to be very unlikely. Still, in the case of adult males, careful testing (blood sampling) during clinical trials needs to be done to rule it out entirely.

Another side effect of the use of the bracelet could be in the interaction of the iron with other competing elements in the body, which could lead to unintended deficiencies in them. This is thought to be least likely for copper because some copper will inevitably corrode from the bracelet despite the sacrificial anode effect of the iron in preserving the copper intact. It is potentially a greater problem with zinc and calcium—relatively close analogs of iron and copper.

Ideally, the device will be used under the supervision of a physician or nurse who can monitor the individual’s general nutritional status. But in reality the bracelet is apt also to be worn without any professional medical supervision at all, so attention needs to be paid to how significant a problem interactions between and among iron’s competitors may be.

Another potential problem is that iron supplementation can feed microbial infections, leading to sepsis and even death. Thus one must monitor the health status of users of Micromin bracelets in order to intervene with antibiotics if necessary. In malarious areas in the tropics, a review (Oppenheimer, 2001) concluded that iron supplementation, especially in high doses, did indeed lead to morbidity from malaria and also from respiratory infections in children infected with malaria. One recommendation was to evaluate the effects of much smaller daily doses of iron–if possible, in combination with zinc.

Clearly, Micromin has considerable potential in this important indication, given the otherwise very deleterious effects of IDA and the prevalence of malaria in many parts of the developing world. The protective effect of very low doses of iron and zinc continuously delivered via the skin and distributed with precision may overcome the otherwise tragic dilemma of whether or not to treat with iron. In particular, Micromin might be less likely to accumulate in the pools of intra-erythrocyte iron used by Plasmodium f. or the free iron or extracellular non-transferrin-bound iron that can be used by infectious agents in HIV and tuberculosis.

 

In Conclusion

It is possible that the phenomena associated with TDM can provide clues in other areas of science and medicine as well. For instance, the mechanism of action of TDM’s electrochemistry may be related to the mechanism of moxibustion (moxa), which also acts via an energy process taking place on the skin. This view assumes that moxibustion operates via a physical signaling effect that would occur regardless of the identity or chemical composition of the dried herb that is burned on the skin during the procedure–an assumption that would require careful investigation to prove or disprove.

Given the uncertainty and lack of experience regarding Transdermal Micronutrition, it will be necessary to monitor the overall health status of the patients in clinical trials in order to identify any special, unexpected effects of the treatment. Even within the area of nutrition alone, it would be interesting to see if the skin forms any special acids or digestive enzymes to degrade the bracelet or to absorb the iron more efficiently. And ultimately it would be valuable to identify the neural or other mechanisms involved in the TDM response.

To sum up, the Micromin project involves seven elements: 1) an electrochemical passive iontophoresis device; 2) the Theory of Transdermal Micronutrition; 3) a main target of treating the problems that individuals with iron deficiency encounter as a result of their vulnerability; 4) prophylaxis against heavy metals and other environmental toxic substances; 5) a potential adjuvant immunostimulative therapy in the combination treatment of anemia patients with infectious diseases; 6) the hypothesis that silver anklets exacerbate/cause severe IDA; and 7) an hypothesis regarding the mechanism of action of moxibustion (moxa).

 

NOTE:  Copper bracelets are counter-indicated for cancer patients because copper can promote metastases.


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*****

Kenneth J. Dillon is an historian who writes on science, medicine, and history.  See the biosketch at About Us.

 

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